To describe the literature which investigates the physiological mechanisms that explain the correlation between musculoskeletal health or decline, and cognitive status.
Adult humans with both cognitive and musculoskeletal parameters specified. No specific age or date ranges.
We want to review the literature on musculoskeletal (MSK) function and decline, and the pathophysiological mechanisms linking this to cognitive function. We expect to obtain literature of interventions known to improve MSK health, such as exercise and nutritional supplements, but observational studies showing clinical associations between MSK and cognitive function will be included, as long as an observation of the underlying mechanism is made.
Definitive observations regarding the pathophysiology linking musculoskeletal health and cognitive function.
The context for this review will be studies of individuals with cognitive impairment, or in individuals where the main outcome is cognitive health. We chose to consider both mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment, as well as interventions to increase or stabilise neurocognitive function, in people with or without existing cognitive impairment.
The concept is to explore how musculoskeletal health is associated with cognitive health. It is postulated that declining musculoskeletal health (sarcopenia) is associated negatively with cognitive function (dementia or cognitive impairment) and that interventions to improve musculoskeletal health (such as exercise) may be associated positively with improved neurocognitive function.